Magic Mushroom

Magic Mushroom

$77.00 Regular price $99.00

Now Alchemy Magic Mushroom Complex

A magical blend of 11 Certified Organic Mushrooms 

We utilize duel extraction techniques to bring you the absolute highest quality of mushroom supplementation available. 



CHAGA

HISTORY

Chaga mushrooms have been used for centuries as part of traditional medicine practices, most often to boost immunity and overall health. Due to its bitter taste, it is typically consumed as a tea or in coffee. It was, in fact, used as a coffee substitute during the World War II. Mixing it with hot water (or alcohol) releases its medicinal properties, though some prefer to drink it cold. Chaga comes from the Russian word for “mushroom” and are one of the most nutrient-dense mushrooms in the world.

Referred to as “black gold”, chaga are rich in nutrients including D and B-complex vitamins, fiber, calcium, amino acids, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and other minerals. As such, it is considered a superfood. It also is loaded with antioxidants and its adaptogen properties help relieve stress and promote calmness.

Chaga mushrooms thrive in cold climates such as Alaska, northern Canada, Siberia, Northern Europe, Russia, Korea. It grows to about 10-15 inches, mainly on birch tree bark. The outside resembles burnt charcoal or wood but the inside holds a soft, orange flesh.

Other common names include inonotus obliquus, cinder conk, birch conk, and clinker polypore.

BENEFITS

The ergosterol peroxide in chaga may have anti-tumor properties. Mice given an aqueous extract of chaga mushrooms yielded significant anti-cancer effects including suppressed cancer and metastasis, resulting from their ability to maintain their body temperature.

Chaga mushrooms stimulates white blood cells by both promoting the formation of good cytokines (Th1 and Th2) and reduced levels of bad cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha). This helps fight bacterial and viral infections and minimize the chance of inflammation.

Extracts of chaga mushrooms were found to have an anti-viral affect on HIV in tests using animal cells, and on the hepatitis C virus.

The betulinic acid in chaga can lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.

In studies using mice, chaga reduced blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.

The antioxidants in chaga mushrooms prevent the production of free radicals. When free radicals accumulate, they cause oxidative stress which contributes to high blood pressure, which could lead to heart disease or stroke.

Additionally, chaga mushrooms may help reduce inflammation, slow aging, protect the liver, and protect DNA.


RED REISHI

 

HISTORY

Primarily found in hot and humid locations in Asia, red reishi mushrooms are foundational to the practice of Eastern medicine and have been used for more than two-thousand years by Chinese healers. It is known as the “Mushroom of Immortality” and was used as symbols of luck, healing, and wellness. It also holds the title of “King of Mushrooms due to its adaptogenic properties. Its use to treat a range of health concerns has expanded with many Western physicians and healers now incorporating reishi mushrooms into treatment plans.

Reishi mushrooms promote better health in a variety of ways. Concentrated compounds in reishi mushrooms help them regulate the immune system and restore homeostasis. Beta glucans, the complex sugars found in the cell walls of fungi and other living things, are found in red reishi mushrooms. Studies have found that beta glucans may help fight cancer cell development. These mushrooms also contain triterpenoids, a derivative of triterpenes, which can help lower blood pressure and reduce allergies. Triterpenesare organic compounds found in a variety of plants. They are essential in aromatherapy because they have their own medicinal value, for example, as anti-inflammatory. The triterpenes in reishi mushrooms can help lower blood pressure and reduce allergies. Additionally, the polysaccharides and peptidoglycans in reishi mushrooms contribute to its health benefits. Polysaccharides are molecules of long chains of carbohydrates that help store energy and send messages and support to other cells. Peptidoglycans are polymers of sugar and amino acids that form a protective cell wall. Reishi mushrooms further promote better health by increasing plasma antioxidant capacity, stimulating immune response, and converting excess testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.

Although called red, reishi mushrooms come in a range of colors and have a bitter, woody taste. They can be eaten fresh but are often preferred as a powder or supplement because they are tough. Other names used for reishi mushrooms are ganoderma lucidum, lingzhi champignon basidiomycete, hongo reishi, or rei-shi.

BENEFITS

Laboratory studies suggest that red reishi mushrooms might stimulate cells of the immune system, and the triterpenes protect against viral, fungal, and microbial viruses.

Polysaccharides, such as beta- and D-glucans, in red reishi mushrooms are immune-modulators that help protect DNA and block cell mutations. The triterpenes may also inhibit the formation and metastasis of tumors.

Triterpenes can help reduce blood pressure, lowering inflammation within the blood vessels and arteries. They also slow blood clotting and help provide hormonal balance to strengthen the cardiovascular system.

The antioxidants in reishi mushrooms help protect the liver by fighting negative immune responses.

Triterpenes inhibit histamines and improve oxygen, making reishi an effective treatment for asthma.

The antihistamine effects in reishi mushrooms may help reduce inflammation.

Some individuals find that hot water extracts of reishi mushroom helps lower pain when other conventional treatments are unsuccessful.

Reishi mushrooms may also help reduce stress, lower cholesterol and blood pressure, control blood sugar, and treat urinary tract symptoms.


LIONS MANE

 

HISTORY

Named for its long, shaggy spines which mimic a lion’s mane, this mushroom has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It is thought to fortify critical internal organs (i.e., liver, lungs, spleen, heart, and kidneys), aid in digestion, and promote overall health and vigor. As such, it is used to relieve problems with the gut including ulcers and chronic gastritis. Packed with beta-glucan and polysaccharides, lion’s mane mushrooms are known for immune-modulating, anti-cancer, and neuro-protective properties. Its medicinal benefits have been recognized by the medical community and been reported in several medical journals for its ability to help with neurological issues by stimulating the growth of neurons in the brain.

This mushroom is primarily cultivated in Asia but also can be found in North America and Europe, most commonly in the late summer and fall. A hardy breed, it can grow on dead or living trees of many varieties or even agricultural waste. It can be consumed raw, cooked, dried or enjoyed as a tea and the flavor is often compared to seafood such as lobster or crab.

Other names include hericium erinaceus, hedgehog mushroom, yamabushitake, and hou tou gu.

BENEFITS

Because it contains hericenones and erinacines, lion’s mane mushrooms can stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) which maintain the brain cells that process and transmit information. These compounds can protect against Alzheimer’s disease and improve cognitive functioning. Equally important, it has been shown to regenerate damaged cells, offering promise to people with neurodegenerative diseases.

The phytochemicals and polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 in lion’s mane may help treat certain types of cancer. Further, metastasis of cancer was inhibited in lab animals given a lion’s mane extract.

The hericenones and erinacines that improve focus and concentration also support the system that controls the body’s fight-or-flight response. A study using mice that consumed lion’s mane mushroom extract had fewer depressive behaviors and blood markers for depression and women who ate cookies with it had lower levels of anxiety and irritation.

The antioxidative properties of ergosterol in lion’s mane offer therapeutic benefit against stress-related vascular disease.

Lion’s mane mushrooms’ antibacterial properties aid in digestion, prevent against bacteria, and protect against stomach ulcers. Its anti-inflammatory properties can help with GI tract issues such as inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) and disease (IBD), as well as Crohn’s disease and colitis.

The antioxidants in lion’s mane mushrooms help reduce the impact of inflammation and oxidative stress. Lab test indicate that this may help liver damage, stroke, and inflammatory bowel syndrome.

Lion’s mane mushrooms may also enhance immune functions, increase energy, manage diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.


CORDYCEPS

 

HISTORY

Among others in the species, Cordyceps mushrooms undergo a unique development. Their spores land on an insect or caterpillar and germinate. As the filaments grow, they consume the host from the inside. Once the insect or caterpillar is fully consumed, a mushroom is produced from its head and releases spores, starting the process anew. As a result, this species is often referred to as “caterpillar mushroom”. Because each species of cordyceps is unique to the host from which it grew, there are over 400 species. The two that are the focus of medicinal value are cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris. Cordyceps are among the superfoods with natural immune-potentiating abilities. It is known for boosting energy and maintaining a disease-free body thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Favored in Chinese and Tibetan medicine, use of cordyceps evolved from observing animals who ate it and increased their strength. As a result, famers began to use it to increase milk production and reproductive capacity of their stock. Convinced that the cordyceps had health value, it was sun-dried for human consumption and those taking it extoled its value in enhancing energy. It was also considered to be an aphrodisiac which made it a popular gift.

Currently cordyceps are among the superfoods with natural immune-potentiating abilities. It is known for boosting energy and maintaining a disease-free body thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.

BENEFITS

An adaptogen, cordyceps contain adenosine which carries energy to muscles which can improve exercise performance.

It is believed that cordyceps increase the activity of antioxidants which prevents oxidative stress to slow the signs of aging.

The adenosine in cordyceps may help reduce high triglycerides and LDL to protect the heart against damage and their use of cordyceps in China is approved for treatment of arrhythmia.

Studies suggest that cordyceps may have anti-cancer properties that not only can block the growth and spread of cancer, but also reduce the risk of side effects, including leukopenia, which reduces the body’s resistance, making it susceptible to infection.

Cordyceps contain d-mannitol cordycepin and deoxyadenosine which help control insulin and blood sugar levels; lab studies also show protection against insulin resistance.

Cordyceps mushrooms also may help fight inflammation, manage stress, and support sexual function.


Phellinus Linteus

 

HISTORY

Used as early as 200 B.C. to promote eternal life, Phellinus linteus was considered a high-ranking, superior medicine due to its many uses and limited side effects. Emperors and other royalty drank tea made from Phellinus linteus to ensure their vitality and longevity. Later, it was used as a diagnostic tool; that is, if a patient experienced a flare-up of a condition after having ingested the mushroom, it was believed that there likely was a further problem that had not yet revealed itself. It also was thought to have a positive influence on qi, or life energy, of the heart, helping those with a tight chest or further benefiting those with a healthy heart.

Interest in Phellinus linteus was renewed after World War II when it was used to treat victims of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombing victims. Continued research led to Korean FDA approval in the 1993 for the use and sale of Phellinus linteus as an anti-tumor medicine.

Phellinus linteus mushrooms grow primarily on mulberry trees, but also on other closely aligned species mainly in China, Korea, and Japan. It has a dark, hoof-like shape that resembles the bark of the branches and stems on which it grows.

Other names include mesimakobu (Japan), song gen (China), and sang hwang (Korea).

BENEFITS

Hispidin, a phenolic compound, along with acid polysaccharides and the polysaccharide-protein complex in Phellinus mushrooms increase immune cell activity, modulate the proliferation of bad cells, and help inhibit tumor growth.

Phellinus linteus mushrooms have two polysaccharide-protein complexes, beta D-glutan and lectin, to help control the immune system.

Phellinus linteus contains the compounds CHCl3, n-BuOH and H2O to fight bacteria.

Cambodian Phellinus linteus was tested to determine its appropriateness as an ingredient in cosmetics and was found to have anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-wrinkle effects.

Exopolysaccharides extracted from Phellinus may ward off autoimmune diabetes though regulation of the cells involved in the immune response. Furopyranone compounds may help treat diabetic complications, and Interfungins can help regulate blood sugar levels.

Phellinus linteus may also help gastroenteric dysfunction, eczema, heart disease, and high blood pressure.


Poria Sclerotia

 

HISTORY

Poria filaments have been used in Chinese medicine for two-thousand years for its healing properties. Due to its sweet taste it is said to target the heart, spleen, lung, and kidney meridians, which affect the body’s spirit and qi (energy). Because is was expensive to produce, it originally was a delicacy reserved for the royal family. Now it is commonly available and widely-used, not only as an alternative medicine but also in many Chinese patent medicines. Known as the “medicine of immortality”, among poria’s traditional functions were to get rid of dampness and disinhibit water for which it is honored as a dampness-eliminating panacea.

Although commonly referred to as a mushroom, Poria is actually a sclerotium, a hardened mass of fungal mycelium. Sclerotium appears dark and in irregular chunks while the inside fruit is white and looks like a mushroom. The filaments that form the body of the mushroom offer its medicinal benefits. Poria are rich in polysaccharides, which help the immune system, and triterpenoids, which offer antioxidant benefits.

Poria sclerotia goes by several other names including bai fu ling, yun ling, China-root, and poria cocos sclerotium.

BENEFITS

The water extract of poria cocos was found to enhance the hippocampal long-term potential in rats and to improve their spatial memory impairment. It also may help protect the brain from beta-amyloids, a substance that forms plaque on the brain.

When kidney disease is initiated by oxidative stress, poria helped protect cells against free radicals; it also helped prevent the disruption of the cell cycle.

Poria may have anti-tumor properties that can fight pancreatic and breast cancer. Lanostane-type triterpene acids inhibit skin cancer growth.

In laboratory tests the triterpenes in extract of poria improved insulin sensitivity leading to reduced blood glucose.

Triterpene carboxylic acids and derivatives in poria extract reduced swelling, long-term inflammation, and dermatitis in mice.

Using poria can also help with anxiety, tension, nervousness, restlessness, stomach issues, fatigue, insomnia, inflamed spleens, difficult or painful urination, and fluid retention.


Shiitake

 

HISTORY

Shiitake mushrooms are among the most popular and most cultivated edible mushrooms in the world. Their dense flesh is rich in nutrients and because it is low in sodium and glucose and rich in fiber, it is an excellent addition to a diabetic diet. One version of the shiitake, the donko, is considered a strong aphrodisiac by Asians, allowing it to be sold at inflated prices. Shiitakes were restricted in the U.S. until the 1970s because they were mistaken for a strain of a different fungus that was an impediment to railroads. Clarification was made and Congress reversed this action.

Native to East Asia, most shiitake mushrooms still are grown in Japan, though China, Singapore, the United States and Canada also produce them. Traditionally grown on logs, shiitakes grown in the U.S. are produced from compressed sawdust. Either way, they grow easily and quickly, sometimes sprouting within a week after the spores are released.

Shiitakes are loaded with vitamin B, fiber, and many beneficial chemical compounds to protect against oxidative damage. They help fight cancer, improve immunity, and support heart health.

Shiitakes are also known as forest mushrooms, snake butter, champignon noir, and lentin.

BENEFITS

Shiitakes contain eritadenine, sterols, and beta-glucans to help reduce cholesterol. Triterpenes also can help reduce blood pressure and prevent plaque build-up in the heart.

The eritadenine in shiitake helps reduce serum cholesterol levels.

Half of the patients in a small tested negative for the HPV virus after using an active hexose correlated compound supplement derived from shiitake, providing great promise for future use.

The polysaccharide lentinan helps fight tumors and heal damage caused by cancer treatments. It also inhibits the growth and spread of leukemia cells. The linoleic acid in shiitake can reduce the risk of breast cancer.

The compounds in shiitakes include oxalic acid, lentinan, centinamycins A and B, and eritadenine, which fight bacteria, viruses, and fungus.

Eritadenine and beta-glucans have a fat-reducing effect that can create feelings of fullness, reduce food intake, delay absorption, and reduce plasma fat levels.

Shiitakes may also aid digestion, provide energy, stimulate the immune system, and improve skin and hair conditions.


Tremella Fuciformis

 

HISTORY

Perhaps the most attractive of the medicinal mushrooms, the Tremella fuciformis mushroom is known as the “beauty mushroom”, or the “snow fungus” due to its color. Used as far back as 200 A.D., it was revered for its medicinal properties and reserved for only the most elite and wealthy Chinese. It was also used by women to maintain their skin and complexion who wanted to look like Yang Guifei, considered one of the most beautiful people in Chinese history. It continues to be a popular ingredient in Chinese cooking and, more recently, in beauty products for its hydrating properties.

A member of the jelly fungus family, Tremella fuciformis grows on dead or fallen trees in tropical and subtropical climates, though it can also be found in temperate areas of North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. It is thought to have anti-aging features, the ability to nourish lungs, and benefits for a healthy complexion.

In Japanese the Tremella fuciformis is called shiro kikurage, or “white tree jellyfish”. It is also known as silver ear mushroom and white wood-ear mushroom.

BENEFITS

Polysaccharides consisting of D-mannan, glucuronic acid, xylose and fucose in Tremella were linked to improvement in subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance.

The antioxidants in Tremella fight damage from free radicals which offers anti-aging properties.

The polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan in Tremella stimulates DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells which contribute to atherosclerosis, hypertension, and thrombophlebitis.

Exopolysaccharides extracted from Tremella may help control diabetes and reduce inflammation.

Tremella fuciformis also may be effective in fighting high cholesterol, cancer, and cough-related conditions.


Turkey Tail

 

HISTORY

Use of the turkey tail, or cloud mushroom, goes back to the Ming Dynasty in 15th century China. Brewed as a tea, its cloud-like appearance is thought to symbolize longevity, health, spiritual attunement, and infinity in Asian cultures. Turkey tail mushrooms are loaded with antioxidants, including 35 different phenolic compounds and flavonoids, quercetin and baicalein. So well-recognized is the use of turkey tail mushrooms that in the 1980s, Japan approved a cancer drug derived from it. In the U.S., the FDA approved the use of turkey tail mushrooms in 2012 to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy treatments in clinical trials for several types of cancer.

Turkey tails are leather-like and wavy decorated with tan and brown concentric circles with a soft, velvet-like texture that have a similar appearance to the tail feathers of a turkey. Turkey tails are a polyspore species and if you have walked in the woods you likely have seen them growing on one of 70 different types of fallen trees and branches. Because they grow easily in any area where there are trees, they are among the most common mushrooms in the world.

Turkey tails also are known as trametes versicolor, coriolus versicolor, polyporus versicolor, yun zhi, and kawartake.

BENEFITS

The polysaccharides kresin and peptide in turkey tail offer cancer-fighting properties. Studies also found that a daily dose of turkey tail improved the immune function in women with breast cancer.

Turkey tail has krestin and polysaccharide peptide to boost immunity and suppress inflammation.

In a study of patients with gum disease, patients who received turkey tail and reishi mushrooms showed positive results.

The prebiotics in turkey tail help grow good bacteria such as bifidobacterium and lactobacillus while limiting bad bacteria like staphylococcus and clostridium.

Turkey tail mushroom also is used to treat HPV, increase energy, and recover from long-term illnesses.


Oyster

 

HISTORY

Unlike many other mushroom species, oyster mushrooms are relatively new, having been cultivated for around 100 years. Nonetheless, they have a higher concentration of antioxidants than any other commercial mushroom. A popular addition to many dishes, the oyster mushroom often is served on its own thanks to its mild taste and anise- or licorice-like flavor. This popular mushroom grows easily and it does not spoil quickly after being harvested, instead maintaining its freshness. In addition to its popularity as a food item, oyster mushrooms are used in the manufacturing of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and paper. Not surprisingly, oyster mushrooms rank third in the amount produced.

Oyster mushrooms grow wild in forests causing its host tree to decompose and like the cordyceps, oyster mushrooms are carnivorous, eating parasitic animals on its host tree. They don’t stop there, however, and will eat debris from food to petroleum. As such, they are a great resource for mycorestoration – the use of fungi to restore damaged habitats.

Oyster mushrooms grow in a range of colors including white, tan, yellow, brown and pink, and are also known as Pleurotus ostreatus, tree oyster, oyster shelf, straw mushroom, and tamogitaki, and hiratake.

BENEFITS

Tests on human cells found that oyster mushroom extract may help to suppress breast and colon cancer. In-vivo tests also revealed therapeutic effects in fighting colorectal tumors and leukemia cells. An isolated lentin showed anti-tumor activity in mice.

Use of an oyster mushroom extract decreased cholesterol and triglycerides in lab animals. Another study found that oyster mushrooms also might reduce triglyceride buildup in the liver.

The D-glucan in oyster mushrooms are the most potent mushroom-derived substance and stimulate immunomodulating activities.

The pleuran in oyster mushrooms has an anti-inflammatory effect on both acute and chronic inflammation.

Oyster mushrooms may also help improve energy, boost brain health, improve blood levels, and offer antibacterial properties.


Maitake

 

HISTORY

Legend has it that when people found the precious maitake mushroom they would become so excited that they would dance for joy. This led to its name, maitake, which means “dancing mushroom” in Japanese. While red reishi mushrooms are called “King” for its properties, maitake are called “King of the Mushrooms” for their size since it can grow up to 100-pounds. Long recognized for its medicinal properties, the value of maitake products was recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1998 when they authorized its use as part of a pilot study on patients with advanced breast and prostate cancer. Other testing to determine if it made cells more sensitive to chemotherapy found that it provided potential clinical benefit.

Another sclerotium, maitake grows in clusters at the base of trees. It is widely used in Japanese cooking and it is best eaten when it is young before it becomes too tough and the caps are more desired over the stalks for the same reason. Also an adaptogen, the earthly flavor and light texture of maitake mushrooms make it a nice complement in a variety of dishes.

Originally from China, Japan, and the United States, maitakes now dance all over the globe with each country offering its own name. Formally Grifola frondosa, in England it is known as hen-of-the-woods, ram’s head, or sheep’s head. In Italy, it is signorina, and in China it is Huishuhua.

BENEFITS

Maitake improve the production of interleukins and lymphokines, cancer-fighting properties that slow tumor growth. It also stimulated the immune systems of breast cancer patients.

Polysaccharides and antioxidants in maitake mushrooms can enhance the immune system and obstruct free radicals.

Polysaccharides also help regulate blood sugar, making it a good option for people with Type 2 diabetes. It also can increase insulin sensitivity while reducing insulin dependence.

In lab studies, use of maitake mushroom extract lowered blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol; it also could reduce age-related hypertension.

Research found that using maitake mushroom extract induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and nearly the same level as conventional medications.

Maitake mushrooms may help with weight loss and control, fighting infections, and lowering cholesterol.


He Shou Wu

HISTORY

Derived from a plant grown primarily in China, Japan, Taiwan, and Tibet, he shou wu is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines. Every part of the plant is used for different medicinal purposes and it is said to “nourish the heart and calm the spirit”. It is used to treat a range of minor to significant ailments and to improve general well-being.

He Shou Wu, or Fo-ti in the North America, also goes by several other names including polygonum multiflorum, radix polygoni multiflora, polygonum multiflorum thumb, fallopian multiflora, shou wu pian, or shen min.

BENEFITS

The anti-inflammatory and bioactive compounds purified from he shou wu root may reduce age-related changes to the brain and offer neuroprotection. This may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease and when used with ginseng, may also help reduce memory loss.

He Shou Wu contains several compounds including anthrone, chrysophanol, anthraquinones, emodin, rhein, ecithin, and stilbene glucosides, that demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects and clinical investigation supports its therapeutic actions.

Rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose (sugars) and anthraquinone glycosides improve immune response and function.

A “surprisingly high estrogen activity” was found in He Shou Wu which can bring relief to women suffering from menopause, especially those who prefer not to use hormone or estrogen replacement therapy.

He Shou Wu also may improve sleep, relieve constipation, improve skin health, and promote hair growth while reducing gray hair.


Organic Vegetable Glycerine

HISTORY

Vegetable glycerine (or glycerin) is a clear, odorless, sweet-tasting syrup-like liquid. It is derived from heating vegetable fats with an alkali and is typically made from soy, coconut, sunflower, or palm oil. It has widespread uses in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries, particularly because it is soluble in both water and alcohol, making it a versatile ingredient.

For organic products, it is popular because of its solvency which allows botanical properties to be extracted from plant materials without the use of alcohol. This, and its moisturizing properties, makes it a desired choice for skin care products. Pure organic vegetable glycerin does not oxidize and has a long shelf.

Vegetable glycerine is also known as vegetable glycerol.

BENEFITS

Because it is absorbed easily into the skin and contains emollient-like properties, vegetable glycerin can soften and soothe skin.

Vegetable glycerin can help dehydration by consuming a small amount before physical activity, and by applying it externally to prevent loss of water from the skin due to wind and sun.

Vegetable glycerin can draw water into the gut creating a laxative effect. It is typically taken as a suppository.

Vegetable glycerin may also help boost the immune system, speed healing of the skin, and treat cerebral edema.